Syntax

JML specifications are written in specially formatted Java comments. Accordingly, to a Java compiler, the JML text is just comment.

JML text is written in comments that either

  • a) begin with //@ and end with the end of the line, or
  • b) begin with /*@ and end with */. Lines within such a block comment may have the first non-whitespace characters be a series of @ symbols, as in
    public class Z {
    /*@ requires x;
      @ ensures y;
      @*/
    void m() { ... }
    }
    

Note that (aside from conditional annotations described below) a Java comment starting with @ as its very first character is a JML annotation; anything else is silently considered a Java comment.

One pitfall with annotations is the following. Java annotations begin with @ (such as @Override). Thus a commented out Java annotation might well read //@Override. But this is interpreted by JML tools as a JML annotation and will result in error messages.

One way to avoid this ambiguity is to adopt the personal best practice of

  • (1) always placing a space before the @ when commenting out Java annotations and
  • (2) always placing white space after the @ and before the JML keyword.

If you have source text from elsewhere that is not modifiable and that contains these problematic Java comments, you can also use the -require-white-space option so that Java comments like //@Override are ignored and not considered erroneous JML annotations. With this option enabled, JML annotations must be written with white space, such as //@ ensures..., and not //@ensures.

Expressions must be contained entirely within one JML comment.

Comments can be conditional, as described below.

JML annotations are one of these types:

  • A modifier. Modifiers are single words, such as pure, that are syntactically similar to Java modifiers like public and static.
  • Clauses. A JML clause begins with a keyword, such as ensures, followed by an expression or other information, and ending with a semicolon. The semicolon is optional if it is just prior to the end of the JML comment.
  • Types. JML defines a number of new specification-only types, such as \real and \bigint.
  • Expression tokens. These occur within JML expressions. They begin with a backslash (e.g., \result). They can be either single words (like \result) or function-like, such as \old(x).

Advanced topic: Conditional Specifications

JML annotations can be conditional upon defining various keys.

Instead of beginning with either //@ or /*@, the @ may be preceded by one or more instances of a + or - followed by a Java identifier. The identifiers are keys controlling whether the comment is ignored or not. No whitespace is permitted before the @; in fact, if the above syntax is not followed precisely, the Java comment will be silently just a Java comment and not a JML annotation.

Keys are defined as follows:

  • One or more keys can be defined on the command-line using the -keys option; the value of the option is a comma-separated list of identifiers.
  • The ESC key is defined if -esc is the current command option
  • The RAC key is defined if -rac is the current command option
  • The OPENJML key is defined within the OpenJML tool
  • The KEY key is reserved for the KeY tool

A JML comment with some keys present in the comment is used (i.e., not ignored) if

  • (a) at least one of the keys given with a + sign is defined and
  • (b) none of the keys with a - sign are defined

So positive keys enable a comment and negative keys disable it, with any negative key overriding any positive ones.

For example, a comment beginning //-RAC@ will be used for typechecking (-check) and static checking (-esc), but ignored for runtime checking (-rac). A comment beginning //+ESC@ will only be used when -esc is being applied. The most common use of conditional JML annotations is the first example: to turn off non-executable annotations during runtime-assertion checking but leave them in place for static checking.