## OpenJML Examples: Bubble Sort

Given an array of integers, sort it in-place in descending order. This implementation uses the O(n^2) bubble sort. However, it does not prove the output is a permutation of the input.

Contributed by Viktorio S. el Hakim.

``````// This example was written by Viktorio S. el Hakim - 1/2021
// It establishes that the array is sorted, but not that it is a permutation of the input array

public class BubbleSort {

/*@
requires arr != null;
ensures \forall int k;0 <= k && k < arr.length-1;arr[k] >= arr[k+1];
@*/
public static void sort(int [] arr) {
//@ final ghost int n = arr.length;

// bounds
//@ loop_invariant 0 <= i <= n;
// elements up-to i are sorted
//@ loop_invariant \forall int k; 0<= k < i; \forall int l; k < l < n; arr[k] >= arr[l];
//@ decreasing n-i;
for (int i = 0; i < arr.length; i++) {

// bounds
//@ loop_invariant i <= j <= n-1;
// j-th element is always the largest
//@ loop_invariant \forall int k; j <= k < n; arr[j] >= arr[k];
// elements up-to i remain sorted
//@ loop_invariant \forall int k; 0 <= k < i; \forall int l; k < l < n; arr[k] >= arr[l];
//@ decreasing j;
for (int j = arr.length-1; j > i; j--) {
if (arr[j-1] < arr[j]) {
int tmp = arr[j];
arr[j] = arr[j-1];
arr[j-1] = tmp;
}
}
}
}
}

``````